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What are zoonoses and how we protect?


In a time when animal diseases produce names of the strangest rumors and even panic, few are those who really know which are the diseases that animals can transmit human or animal man can pass.

Known as zoonoses, they can be divided according to their severity, and the deadly, such as rabies or serious brucellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis. Another criterion is that of how manifests, with identical signs of disease both in humans and in animals for rabies, or different from humans to animals, in the case of anthrax. Another example would be ornitoza transmitted from birds, which has a very faded as evolution but a serious symptoms in animals with severe clinical signs in humans.

Because the number of pets are dogs and cats, from which man is sick most of the diseases. If man can contract cainelelui 39 kinds of zoonoses, including the most dangerous and most common is rabies. It also can become infected with germs of disease or parasites such as leptospirosis, hidatidoza (hydatid cyst), pasteureloze, salmonellosis and many helmintiaze (intestinal parasites). In this category is less known disease, toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans) caused by nematode larvae of a worm, Toxocara canis. They spread throughout the body, infecting all the organs, creating fever, pulmonary symptoms and eosinophils in the blood. The most dangerous is the damage to the eye, which untreated can lead to blindness by endophthalmitis. Human infection is through contact with dog feces that contain Toxocara.


The cat man may take 22 zoonoses, and among them is pasteureloza, toxoplasmosis, cat scratch disease and various helmintiaze. One of the most common problems is because more than half the cats in their saliva a human pathogenic bacterium, Pasteurella multocida, which can flegmoane the bites and sepsis. It is said that cats are generally dangerous for pregnant women, because these animals participate in the evolutionary cycle of a protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. This, when infection of a pregnant woman becomes dangerous to the fetus because the mother is toxoplasmosis, which can cause serious birth defects child. It is important to say that the cat presents a low risk, the highest percentage of disease datarandu eating contaminated meat is insufficiently cooked. Therefore it is recommended to perform the analysis in case of pregnancy but also respect some simple rules of hygiene such as cleaning the cat litter daily, followed by disinfection with hot water, washing their hands after they walk with a cat or raw meat. Other measures are to avoid eating meat and insufficiently tempered cat to feed raw meat, avoid animal treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.

Main zoonoses that can be contctate the cat are parasitic, and fungal infectious diseases that, although some of them serious, can be prevented easily. In the first category come parasitic diseases toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a microscopic parasite. In cat body, the only definitive host, the parasite develops its life cycle and eliminate the cat feces oochistii that start a new cycle. Infesterea cat occurs by eating raw meat and meat to humans through cooked insuficiet or accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces. Another condition in the same category is ascarioza or intestinal worms, maw, being the most famous and common parasitic disease.The cat is caused by Toxocara cati, a parasite of up to 10 cm long thread-looking pearly white, which develops and matures in infested body. From eggs laid by female cat intestine and eliminated in the feces of the second stage larva is formed, which is as infested. Cat Healthy Eating eggs infest the hunting or consuming raw organs from diseased animals. In humans is transmitted through dirty hands, unwashed vegetables and fruits from psisca. If no disease occurs in adults, children can register severe forms manifested in the eye that can lead to blindness. Although it is believed that the disease is mainly due to cats, dogs are those who appear most often.To prevent the disease must be respected hand hygiene, correct diet for cats and humans and regular deworming cat and kittens from the age of 2 weeks, 2 in 2 weeks to 3 months of age.

 

 

One of the least understood disease is echinococcosis (hydatid cyst), produced Echinococcus granulosus.Contrary to widespread opinions, hydatid cyst is not caused by cat hair or its entering the liver or lung, but the fruit and vegetable consumption or poorly washed hands after contact with fur nespalarea an infected dog thatparasite eggs can be found. They arrive in the digestive tract where embryos are released hexachloro that enter the capillary and which are spread through blood circulation in the liver and lung, developing hydatid cyst, which is only removed surgically. Wash your hands after touching a dog and washing fruits and vegetables are rigorous enough to prevent the disease.

Dipylidium caninum tapeworm reaches the host organism, animal or human by ingestion of fleas and, though someone they can not see clinical signs of disease can be seen in the feces of tapeworm proglottids like grains of rice. Infection with this parasite is avoided by regular internal and external deworming cat.

Moving in category fungal diseases, dermatomycosis is a condition caused by a fungus Microsporum canis produced generally sick man and the cat may just where the human immune system is weakened, and prevention of this disease is by treating sick animals and the rules of hygiene.

In the last segment of infectious zoonoses are two bacterial diseases, Campylobacterioza and salmonellosis, diarrheal diseases, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella spp. Although believed to be caused by cat to feline infection with these bacteria do not cause disease clinic, and most of the cases recorded in humans may be associated with this cat.

Another afactiune, cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and occurs after cat scratches if the animal is a carrier of bacteria. Appearing originally in the form of papules or pustules, leading in a few weeks at a regional lymphadenopathy. Dezinfectaea wound is the best method of prevention.

Last of the infectious disease is rabies, a viral infectious disease caused by rabies virus and is transmitted to humans and cats through bite (scratch) a sick animal. Keep in mind that the disease can be treated only after the bite, once she started having anymore clinical treatment, patients die of rabies in a short period of time. The main way of prevention is vaccination of cats, mandatory by law since the age of 3 months and repeated annually.
In the case of bites, scratches or wounds any animal products or unknown domestic or wild, should go immediately to a specialist in rabies centers of infectious disease hospitals. The first measures to be taken to reach the doctor, including catching, if possible, the animal that has bitten, which will be kept under surveillance by the veterinarian and, if you live more than eight days, can be considered healthy. The wound will be cleaned immediately and thoroughly with soap and water to remove saliva from the bite site, then it will disinfect with alcohol 0.5% iodine, alcohol or another disinfectant simple. Pay attention toaletarii wound, it is the best way to prevent the disease. Your doctor will need to decide if the serum and rabies vaccine or other treatment with antibiotics.